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Английский FAQ > Using Verbs
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 Using Verbs
The verb is perhaps the most important part of the sentence. A verb or compound verb asserts something about the subject of the sentence and expresses actions, events, or states of being
16 ASK is one of the most common verbs in English

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Using Verbs ]


A verb may be in one of three moods: the indicative mood, the imperative mood, and the subjunctive mood.

The Indicative Mood

The indicative mood is the most common and is used to express facts and opinions or to make inquiries. Most of the statements you make or you read will be in the indicative mood.

The highlighted verbs in the following sentences are all in the indicative mood:

Joe picks up the boxes.
The german shepherd fetches the stick.
Charles closes the window.

The Imperative Mood

The imperative mood is also common and is used to give orders or to make requests. The imperative is identical in form to the second person indicative.

The highlighted verbs in the following sentences are all in the imperative mood:

Pick up those boxes.
Fetch.
Close the window.

The Subjunctive Mood

The subjunctive mood has almost disappeared from the language and is thus more difficult to use correctly than either the indicative mood or the imperative mood. The subjunctive mood rarely appears in everyday conversation or writing and is used in a set of specific circumstances.

You form the present tense subjunctive by dropping the "s" from the end of the third person singular, except for the verb "be".

paints
present subjunctive: "paint"
walks
present subjunctive: "walk"
thinks
present subjunctive: "think"
is
present subjunctive: "be"

Except for the verb "be," the past tense subjunctive is indistinguishable in form from the past tense indicative. The past tense subjunctive of "be" is "were."

painted
past subjunctive: "painted"
walked
past subjunctive: "walked"
thought
past subjunctive: "thought"
was
past subjunctive: "were"

The subjunctive is found in a handful of traditional circumstances. For example, in the sentence "God save the Queen," the verb "save" is in the subjunctive mood. Similarly, in the sentence "Heaven forbid," the verb forbid is in the subjunctive mood.

The subjunctive is usually found in complex sentences. The subjunctive mood is used in dependent clauses to express unreal conditions and in dependent clauses following verbs of wishing or requesting.

The subjunctive mood is used in a dependent clause attached to an independent clause that uses a verb such as "ask," "command," "demand," "insist," "order," "recommend," "require," "suggest," or "wish."

The subjunctive mood is also used in a dependent clause attached to an independent clause that uses an adjective that expresses urgency (such as "crucial," "essential," "important," "imperative," "necessary," or "urgent").

Each of the highlighted verbs in the following sentences is in the subjunctive mood.

It is urgent that Harraway attend Monday's meeting.
The Member of Parliament demanded that the Minister explain the effects of the bill on the environment.
The sergeant ordered that Calvin scrub the walls of the mess hall.
We suggest that Mr. Beatty move the car out of the no parking zone.
The committee recommended that the bill be passed immediately.
If Canada were a tropical country, we would be able to grow pineapples in our backyards.
If he were more generous, he would not have chased the canvassers away from his door.
I wish that this book were still in print.
If the council members were interested in stopping street prostitution, they would urge the police to pursue customers more vigorously than they pursue the prostitutes.


Using Verbs ]


Gerunds and infinitives can both be used as subjects, subject complements, and direct objects of verbs. The choice of whether to use a gerund or infinitive as a subject, subject complement, or object of some verbs is left to the speaker/writer. This choice can indicate shades of meaning.

But the choice between which to use as a direct object is sometimes dictated by the verb, leaving no choice. Which verbs can be followed by gerunds, which by infinitives, (and which by either) must be memorized. In addition, some verbs require that an infinitive object have a different subject (agent) from that of the first verb, for others no other agent is possible, and for some both are possible. Again, these must be memorized. The general meanings associated with gerunds and infinitives can offer clues, but do not always predict which forms are possible.

Remember, the question here concerns verbs which control gerunds and infinitives as their objects. Of course, both infinitives and gerunds can follow an unlimited number of verbs for other reasons. For example, infinitives can also follow verbs to show purpose, in reduced adjective or adverb clauses, or with other meanings. Gerunds with noun modifiers can be the objects of many different verbs. And present participles, which may look like gerunds, are not controlled by preceding verbs. And remember that noun clauses can also be used as objects of many of these same verbs

VERBS THAT CAN HAVE INFINITIVE OR GERUND OBJECTS,
with little or no difference in meaning:
____ studying.
____ to study.


can afford
can't bear
begin
cease
commence
continue
dread
hate
like
loathe
love
neglect
prefer
propose
(can't) stand
start
undertake


VERBS THAT CAN HAVE GERUND OBJECTS, BUT NOT INFINITIVES:

(usually actual events, often past)

_____ (his) studying

gerund subjects (agents) are usually possessive (his , etc.)

admit
anticipate
appreciate
avoid
complete
consider
defend
delay
deny
detest
discuss
dislike
enjoy
escape
excuse his
finish
get through
give up
go on
can't help
imagine
involve
keep (on)
would like (him)
mention
(not) mind
miss
postpone
practice
put off
quit
recall
recollect
recommend
report
resent
resist
resume
risk
(can't) see
stop
suggest
take up
tolerate
understand


VERBS THAT CAN HAVE INFINITIVE OBJECTS, BUT NOT GERUNDS:

(often suggesting a potential or unreal event)

_______ to study


him = infinitive must have a subject (agent)
for him = infinitive must have a subject introduced by for
(him) or (for him) = subject (agent) of infinitive is optional
(none of the above = verb is followed directly by the infinitive)


agree
aim
appear
appoint him
arrange (for him)
authorize him
ask (him)
beg (him)
(not) care
cause him
challenge him
choose (him)
claim
command him
condescend
consent
convince him
dare (him)
decide
demand
deserve
desire
direct him
enable him
endeavor
expect (him)
fail
force him
get (him)
happen
hesitate
hire him
help him
hope
instruct him
intend
invite him
lead him
learn
long
manage
motivate him
need (him)
oblige him
offer
order him
pay him
persuade him
plan
prepare (him)
pretend
proceed
promise
refuse
remind him
resolve
seem
select him
send him
strive
struggle
swear
tell him
tend
threaten
train him
trust him
volunteer
vow
wait (for him)
want (him)
warn him
wish (him)
yearn


VERBS THAT CAN HAVE INFINITIVE OR GERUND OBJECTS,
but with a difference in meaning:


attempt
forget
mean
regret
remember
try


________ studying
actual:
(first it happens; then there is mental activity)


do it, hoping for success
do it, then have a mental lapse
it exists, it has a significance
do it, then feel bad
do it, then be aware of it
do it, hoping for success


________ to study.
potential:
first there is mental activity about a possible future event)


make an effort, hoping to do it
have a mental lapse, and therefore not do it
have an intention to do it
feel bad, but then do it
think about it, and then do it
make an effort, hoping to do it


VERBS THAT CAN HAVE INFINITIVE OBJECTS WITH AGENTS, OR GERUNDS :
_______ studying
___ him to study


advise
allow
encourage
forbid
permit
require
teach
urge


Using Verbs ]


1 = verb followed by a gerund OR a noun + an infinitive
2 = verb followed by a gerund OR an infinitive with a difference in meaning
3 = verb followed by a gerund OR an infinitive with little difference in meaning


admit He admitted cheating on the test.
advise [1] The doctor generally advised drinking low-fat milk.
allow [1] Ireland doesn't allow smoking in bars.
anticipate I anticipated arriving late.
appreciate I appreciated her helping me.
avoid He avoided talking to her.
begin [3] I began learning Chinese.
can't bear [3] He can't bear having so much responsibility.
can't help He can't help talking so loudly.
can't see I can't see paying so much money for a car.
can't stand [3] He can't stand her smoking in the office.
cease [3] The government ceased providing free healthcare.
complete He completed renovating the house.
consider She considered moving to New York.
continue [3] He continued talking.
defend The lawyer defended her making such statements.
delay He delayed doing his taxes.
deny He denied committing the crime.
despise She despises waking up early.
discuss We discussed working at the company.
dislike She dislikes working after 5 PM.
don't mind I don't mind helping you.
dread [2] She dreads getting up at 5 AM.
encourage [1] He encourages eating healthy foods.
enjoy We enjoy hiking.
finish [2] He finished doing his homework.
forget [2] I forgot giving you my book.
hate [3] I hate cleaning the bathroom.
imagine He imagines working there one day.
involve The job involves traveling to Japan once a month.
keep She kept interrupting me.
like [3] She likes listening to music.
love [3] I love swimming.
mention He mentioned going to that college.
mind Do you mind waiting here for a few minutes.
miss She misses living near the beach.
need [2] The aquarium needs cleaning.
neglect [3] Sometimes she neglects doing her homework.
permit [1] California does not permit smoking in restaurants.
postpone He postponed returning to Paris.
practice She practiced singing the song.
prefer [3] He prefers sitting at the back of the movie theater.
propose [3] I proposed having lunch at the beach.
quit [2] She quit worrying about the problem.
recall Tom recalled using his credit card at the store.
recollect She recollected living in Kenya.
recommend Tony recommended taking the train.
regret [2] She regretted saying that.
remember [2] I remember telling her the address yesterday.
report He reported her stealing the money.
require [1] The certificate requires completing two courses.
resent Nick resented Debbie's being there.
resist He resisted asking for help.
risk He risked being caught.
start [3] He started studying harder.
stop [2] She stopped working at 5 o'clock.
suggest They suggested staying at the hotel.
tolerate I tolerated her talking.
try [2] Sam tried opening the lock with a paperclip.
understand I understand his quitting.
urge [1] They urge recycling bottles and paper.


Using Verbs ]


Verbs Followed by an Infinitive

She agreed to speak before the game.

agreeaimappeararrange
askattemptbe ablebeg
begincarechoosecondescend
consentcontinuedaredecide
deservedetestdislikeexpect
failforgetgethappen
havehesitatehopehurry
intendleapleavelike
longlovemeanneglect
offeroughtplanprefer
prepareproceedpromisepropose
refuseremembersayshoot
startstopstriveswear
threatentryusewait
wantwish  



Verbs Followed by an Object and an Infinitive
Everyone expected her to win.

adviseallowaskbeg
bringbuildbuychallenge
choosecommanddaredirect
encourageexpectforbidforce
havehireinstructinvite
leadleaveletlike
lovemotivateorderpay
permitpersuadepreparepromise
remindrequiresendteach
tellurgewantwarn

Note: Some of these verbs are included in the list above and may be used without an object.



Verbs Followed by a Gerund

They enjoyed working on the boat.

admitadviseappreciateavoid
can't helpcompleteconsiderdelay
denydetestdislikeenjoy
escapeexcusefinishforbid
get throughhaveimaginemind
misspermitpostponepractice
quitrecallreportresent
resistresumeriskspend (time)
suggesttoleratewaste (time) 



Verbs Followed by a Preposition and a Gerund

We concentrated on doing well.

admit toapprove ofargue aboutbelieve in
care aboutcomplain aboutconcentrate onconfess to
depend ondisapprove ofdiscourage fromdream about
feel likeforget aboutinsist onobject to
plan onprevent (someone) fromrefrain fromsucceed in
talk aboutthink aboutworry about 


Using Verbs ]


The Verb To Do

The verb to do is another common verb in English. It can be used as an auxiliary and a main verb. It is often used in questions.

Forms of To Do
Present Past Perfect
Form
Continuous
Form
I / you / we / they
do
did
have / had done
are / were doing
he / she / it
does
did
has / had done
is / was doing

As an auxiliary verb do is used with a main verb when forming interrogative or negative sentences, or for adding emphasis. It is also called the dummy operator or dummy auxiliary.

Question Positive Statement (spoken) Negative Statement (spoken)
Singular    
Do I? I do I do not (I don't)
Do you? You do You do not (You don't)
Does he/she/it? He/she/it does He/she/it does not (He/she/it doesn't)
Plural    
Do we? We do We do not (We don't)
Do you? You do You do not (You don't)
Do they? They do They do not (They don't)

Examples

Do Does
Question - ? "Do you always take the bus to work?" "Does she ever do her homework on time?"
Positive Answer - Yes "Yes I do." "Yes she does."
Negative Answer - No "No I don't." "No she doesn't."

When using the continuous tense do becomes doing and it doesn't change.

Doing
Question - ? "Are you doing your homework?"
Positive Answer - Yes "Yes I am ."
Negative Answer - No "No I'm not."

When using the simple past tense do becomes did and it doesn't change.

Did
Question - ? "Did you always take the bus to work?"
Positive Answer - Yes "Yes I did ."
Negative Answer - No "No I didn't ."

When using the perfect tense do becomes done and it doesn't change.

Done
Question - ? "Have you done your homework?"
Positive Answer - Yes "Yes I have ."
Negative Answer - No "No I haven't."


More functions for the verb "to do"
The verb "to do" works as a main verb.
For example:-
YT - My husband does the dishes.
ST - Gosh! Did he do them yesterday?
YT - Yes he did.
Do is used as an auxiliary verb (dummy auxiliary) in the question form.
For example: I know the way. Do you know the way?
Do is used for emphasis in positive statements.
For example: I do like this beer!

!Note - As an auxiliary verb 'do' is always followed by the base form of the main verb (infinitive).


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