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Английский FAQ 
Welcome to the Английский FAQ In this area of our site, you will find the answers to the frequently asked questions, as well as answers to How do I and Did you know questions. Please feel free to post a comment on any Q&A.
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Your diction is simply your choice of words. There is no single, correct diction in the English language; instead, you choose different words or phrases for different contexts
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Spell checkers will catch some kinds of errors, but not all. For example, they tend to miss homonyms -- words which are pronounced the same way but spelled differently, such as site/ sight, there/ their/ they're, and its/ it's.
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Using Verbs ]


"Ask" is one of the most common verbs in English, but there are a number of details to remember when you use it in a sentence. Here are 8 ways to use the English verb "ask" correctly.

1. Ask (someone) for + object
Use "ask for" with the object you want to receive:

I asked the teacher for a pencil.
I asked her for a glass of water.
My son asked for a video game for Christmas.

You can also use ask (someone) for when the thing you want to receive is not a physical object:

I asked the teacher for some help with the homework.
I'm going to ask my sister for advice.
Let's ask the travel agent for information.


2. Ask (someone) about + topic
Use "ask about" with a topic that you want information about:

I asked the teacher about the final exam.
I asked my colleague about his trip to Portugal.
My boss asked me about the project.
Let's ask the travel agent about flights to Europe.


3. Ask (someone) + question
You can also use the structure "ask (someone)" followed by the actual question you asked, using who, what, when, where, how, why:

I asked my kids who had made the mess in the kitchen.
He asked me what I like to do on the weekends.
Let's ask when the next showing of the movie is.
I asked Jill where she had bought her dress.
The hotel receptionist asked me how many nights I would be staying.
Have you ever asked him why he doesn't like to travel?

Use ask... if for yes/no questions

I asked her if she likes to dance.
Let's ask the waitress if there are any lunch specials.
The teacher asked the class if everyone had finished the homework.


4. Ask (someone) to + verb
Use this structure when you want a person to do something (or not to do something)

My mother asked me to clean my room.
I asked my secretary to print out the report.
They asked us not to make so much noise in the library.
The doctor asked me not to eat for 12 hours before the surgery.


Error Alert! Never use: Ask to (someone)

I asked to my friend if she had any plans.
I asked my friend if she had any plans.

Let's ask to the teacher our question.
Let's ask the teacher our question.

He asked to me about my family.
He asked me about my family.

I asked to everyone turn off their cell phones during the meeting.
I asked everyone to turn off their cell phones during the meeting

Phrasal verbs with ask

5. ask around

= ask a number of people for information or help

"What's the best restaurant in this area?" "I like Gotham Bar & Grill, but if you ask around I'm sure you'll get a number of great suggestions."

6. ask out
= invite someone to go out on a romantic date

He wants to ask her out, but he's too nervous.
You can also specify the invitation:

He asked me out to/for dinner.
He asked me out to/for lunch.
He asked me out for a movie.
He asked me out for a drink.
He asked me out for coffee.


7. ask over
= invite someone to your home

I'm going to ask the new neighbors over for dinner tomorrow night.

Barbara asked me over to fix her computer.

8. ask (someone) over and over (again)
= ask the same question many times

I've asked her over and over again to stop calling me, and she just won't listen.

We asked him over and over why he was upset, but he didn't want to tell us.


Using Verbs ]


The Verb To Do

The verb to do is another common verb in English. It can be used as an auxiliary and a main verb. It is often used in questions.

Forms of To Do
Present Past Perfect
Form
Continuous
Form
I / you / we / they
do
did
have / had done
are / were doing
he / she / it
does
did
has / had done
is / was doing

As an auxiliary verb do is used with a main verb when forming interrogative or negative sentences, or for adding emphasis. It is also called the dummy operator or dummy auxiliary.

Question Positive Statement (spoken) Negative Statement (spoken)
Singular    
Do I? I do I do not (I don't)
Do you? You do You do not (You don't)
Does he/she/it? He/she/it does He/she/it does not (He/she/it doesn't)
Plural    
Do we? We do We do not (We don't)
Do you? You do You do not (You don't)
Do they? They do They do not (They don't)

Examples

Do Does
Question - ? "Do you always take the bus to work?" "Does she ever do her homework on time?"
Positive Answer - Yes "Yes I do." "Yes she does."
Negative Answer - No "No I don't." "No she doesn't."

When using the continuous tense do becomes doing and it doesn't change.

Doing
Question - ? "Are you doing your homework?"
Positive Answer - Yes "Yes I am ."
Negative Answer - No "No I'm not."

When using the simple past tense do becomes did and it doesn't change.

Did
Question - ? "Did you always take the bus to work?"
Positive Answer - Yes "Yes I did ."
Negative Answer - No "No I didn't ."

When using the perfect tense do becomes done and it doesn't change.

Done
Question - ? "Have you done your homework?"
Positive Answer - Yes "Yes I have ."
Negative Answer - No "No I haven't."


More functions for the verb "to do"
The verb "to do" works as a main verb.
For example:-
YT - My husband does the dishes.
ST - Gosh! Did he do them yesterday?
YT - Yes he did.
Do is used as an auxiliary verb (dummy auxiliary) in the question form.
For example: I know the way. Do you know the way?
Do is used for emphasis in positive statements.
For example: I do like this beer!

!Note - As an auxiliary verb 'do' is always followed by the base form of the main verb (infinitive).


Using Verbs ]


Verbs Followed by an Infinitive

She agreed to speak before the game.

agreeaimappeararrange
askattemptbe ablebeg
begincarechoosecondescend
consentcontinuedaredecide
deservedetestdislikeexpect
failforgetgethappen
havehesitatehopehurry
intendleapleavelike
longlovemeanneglect
offeroughtplanprefer
prepareproceedpromisepropose
refuseremembersayshoot
startstopstriveswear
threatentryusewait
wantwish  



Verbs Followed by an Object and an Infinitive
Everyone expected her to win.

adviseallowaskbeg
bringbuildbuychallenge
choosecommanddaredirect
encourageexpectforbidforce
havehireinstructinvite
leadleaveletlike
lovemotivateorderpay
permitpersuadepreparepromise
remindrequiresendteach
tellurgewantwarn

Note: Some of these verbs are included in the list above and may be used without an object.



Verbs Followed by a Gerund

They enjoyed working on the boat.

admitadviseappreciateavoid
can't helpcompleteconsiderdelay
denydetestdislikeenjoy
escapeexcusefinishforbid
get throughhaveimaginemind
misspermitpostponepractice
quitrecallreportresent
resistresumeriskspend (time)
suggesttoleratewaste (time) 



Verbs Followed by a Preposition and a Gerund

We concentrated on doing well.

admit toapprove ofargue aboutbelieve in
care aboutcomplain aboutconcentrate onconfess to
depend ondisapprove ofdiscourage fromdream about
feel likeforget aboutinsist onobject to
plan onprevent (someone) fromrefrain fromsucceed in
talk aboutthink aboutworry about 


Using Verbs ]


1 = verb followed by a gerund OR a noun + an infinitive
2 = verb followed by a gerund OR an infinitive with a difference in meaning
3 = verb followed by a gerund OR an infinitive with little difference in meaning


admit He admitted cheating on the test.
advise [1] The doctor generally advised drinking low-fat milk.
allow [1] Ireland doesn't allow smoking in bars.
anticipate I anticipated arriving late.
appreciate I appreciated her helping me.
avoid He avoided talking to her.
begin [3] I began learning Chinese.
can't bear [3] He can't bear having so much responsibility.
can't help He can't help talking so loudly.
can't see I can't see paying so much money for a car.
can't stand [3] He can't stand her smoking in the office.
cease [3] The government ceased providing free healthcare.
complete He completed renovating the house.
consider She considered moving to New York.
continue [3] He continued talking.
defend The lawyer defended her making such statements.
delay He delayed doing his taxes.
deny He denied committing the crime.
despise She despises waking up early.
discuss We discussed working at the company.
dislike She dislikes working after 5 PM.
don't mind I don't mind helping you.
dread [2] She dreads getting up at 5 AM.
encourage [1] He encourages eating healthy foods.
enjoy We enjoy hiking.
finish [2] He finished doing his homework.
forget [2] I forgot giving you my book.
hate [3] I hate cleaning the bathroom.
imagine He imagines working there one day.
involve The job involves traveling to Japan once a month.
keep She kept interrupting me.
like [3] She likes listening to music.
love [3] I love swimming.
mention He mentioned going to that college.
mind Do you mind waiting here for a few minutes.
miss She misses living near the beach.
need [2] The aquarium needs cleaning.
neglect [3] Sometimes she neglects doing her homework.
permit [1] California does not permit smoking in restaurants.
postpone He postponed returning to Paris.
practice She practiced singing the song.
prefer [3] He prefers sitting at the back of the movie theater.
propose [3] I proposed having lunch at the beach.
quit [2] She quit worrying about the problem.
recall Tom recalled using his credit card at the store.
recollect She recollected living in Kenya.
recommend Tony recommended taking the train.
regret [2] She regretted saying that.
remember [2] I remember telling her the address yesterday.
report He reported her stealing the money.
require [1] The certificate requires completing two courses.
resent Nick resented Debbie's being there.
resist He resisted asking for help.
risk He risked being caught.
start [3] He started studying harder.
stop [2] She stopped working at 5 o'clock.
suggest They suggested staying at the hotel.
tolerate I tolerated her talking.
try [2] Sam tried opening the lock with a paperclip.
understand I understand his quitting.
urge [1] They urge recycling bottles and paper.


Using Verbs ]


Gerunds and infinitives can both be used as subjects, subject complements, and direct objects of verbs. The choice of whether to use a gerund or infinitive as a subject, subject complement, or object of some verbs is left to the speaker/writer. This choice can indicate shades of meaning.

But the choice between which to use as a direct object is sometimes dictated by the verb, leaving no choice. Which verbs can be followed by gerunds, which by infinitives, (and which by either) must be memorized. In addition, some verbs require that an infinitive object have a different subject (agent) from that of the first verb, for others no other agent is possible, and for some both are possible. Again, these must be memorized. The general meanings associated with gerunds and infinitives can offer clues, but do not always predict which forms are possible.

Remember, the question here concerns verbs which control gerunds and infinitives as their objects. Of course, both infinitives and gerunds can follow an unlimited number of verbs for other reasons. For example, infinitives can also follow verbs to show purpose, in reduced adjective or adverb clauses, or with other meanings. Gerunds with noun modifiers can be the objects of many different verbs. And present participles, which may look like gerunds, are not controlled by preceding verbs. And remember that noun clauses can also be used as objects of many of these same verbs

VERBS THAT CAN HAVE INFINITIVE OR GERUND OBJECTS,
with little or no difference in meaning:
____ studying.
____ to study.


can afford
can't bear
begin
cease
commence
continue
dread
hate
like
loathe
love
neglect
prefer
propose
(can't) stand
start
undertake


VERBS THAT CAN HAVE GERUND OBJECTS, BUT NOT INFINITIVES:

(usually actual events, often past)

_____ (his) studying

gerund subjects (agents) are usually possessive (his , etc.)

admit
anticipate
appreciate
avoid
complete
consider
defend
delay
deny
detest
discuss
dislike
enjoy
escape
excuse his
finish
get through
give up
go on
can't help
imagine
involve
keep (on)
would like (him)
mention
(not) mind
miss
postpone
practice
put off
quit
recall
recollect
recommend
report
resent
resist
resume
risk
(can't) see
stop
suggest
take up
tolerate
understand


VERBS THAT CAN HAVE INFINITIVE OBJECTS, BUT NOT GERUNDS:

(often suggesting a potential or unreal event)

_______ to study


him = infinitive must have a subject (agent)
for him = infinitive must have a subject introduced by for
(him) or (for him) = subject (agent) of infinitive is optional
(none of the above = verb is followed directly by the infinitive)


agree
aim
appear
appoint him
arrange (for him)
authorize him
ask (him)
beg (him)
(not) care
cause him
challenge him
choose (him)
claim
command him
condescend
consent
convince him
dare (him)
decide
demand
deserve
desire
direct him
enable him
endeavor
expect (him)
fail
force him
get (him)
happen
hesitate
hire him
help him
hope
instruct him
intend
invite him
lead him
learn
long
manage
motivate him
need (him)
oblige him
offer
order him
pay him
persuade him
plan
prepare (him)
pretend
proceed
promise
refuse
remind him
resolve
seem
select him
send him
strive
struggle
swear
tell him
tend
threaten
train him
trust him
volunteer
vow
wait (for him)
want (him)
warn him
wish (him)
yearn


VERBS THAT CAN HAVE INFINITIVE OR GERUND OBJECTS,
but with a difference in meaning:


attempt
forget
mean
regret
remember
try


________ studying
actual:
(first it happens; then there is mental activity)


do it, hoping for success
do it, then have a mental lapse
it exists, it has a significance
do it, then feel bad
do it, then be aware of it
do it, hoping for success


________ to study.
potential:
first there is mental activity about a possible future event)


make an effort, hoping to do it
have a mental lapse, and therefore not do it
have an intention to do it
feel bad, but then do it
think about it, and then do it
make an effort, hoping to do it


VERBS THAT CAN HAVE INFINITIVE OBJECTS WITH AGENTS, OR GERUNDS :
_______ studying
___ him to study


advise
allow
encourage
forbid
permit
require
teach
urge


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